Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) indicated for treatment of hypertension and Cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction in patients who are indicated for ACE inhibitors.
Angiotensin-ll receptor blocker
Telbivudine is a synthetic thymidine nucleoside analogue with activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). Telbivudine is the unmodified 88L enantiomer of the naturally occurring nucleoside, thymidine. It undergoes phosphorylation via interaction with cellular kinases to form the active metabolite, telbivudine 5'-triphosphate. Telbivudine 5'8triphosphate inhibits HBV DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase) by competing with the natural substrate, thymidine 5'8triphosphate. This leads to the chain termination of DNA synthesis, thereby inhibiting viral replication. Incorporation of telbivudine 5'8triphosphate into viral DNA also causes DNA chain termination, resulting in inhibition of HBV replication. Telbivudine inhibits anticompliment or second-strand DNA.
Hypertension: Dosage must be individualized. The usual starting dose of Telmisartan tablets is 40 mg once a day. Blood pressure response is dose-related over the range of 20 to 80 mg Most of the antihypertensive effect is apparent within 2 weeks and maximal reduction is generally attained after 4 weeks. When additional blood pressure reduction beyond that achieved with 80 mg Telmisartan is required, a diuretic may be added. No initial dosage adjustment is necessary for elderly patients or patients with renal impairment, including those on hemodialysis. Patients on dialysis may develop orthostatic hypotension; their blood pressure should be closely monitored. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: The recommended dose of Telmisartan tablets is 80 mg once a day and can be administered with or without food. It is not known whether doses lower than 80 mg of telmisartan are effective in reducing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. When initiating Telmisartan therapy for cardiovascular risk reduction, monitoring of blood pressure is recommended, and if appropriate, adjustment of medications that lower blood pressure may be necessary.Telmisartan tablets may be administered with other antihypertensive agents with or without food.
When certain medicines are taken together, there is a possibility of developing drug interactions. With Telmisartan, drugs such as potassium supplements or potassium-sparing diuretics may cause an interaction. When Telmisartan was co-administered with digoxin, median increases in digoxin peak plasma concentration (49%) and in through concentration (20%) where observed. Therefore, monitor digoxin levels when initiating, adjusting and discontinuing Telmisartan for the purpose of keeping the digoxin level within the therapeutic range. NSAID use may lead to increase risk of renal impairment and loss of antihypertensive effect. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving Telmisartan and NSAID therapy.
Telmisartan is contraindicated in conditions like Pregnancy, Adjunct in treatment of opioid dependence, Dry or painful cough. Telmisartan is also contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to telmisartan.
Most people tolerate telmisartan well. Side effects are usually minor and either require no treatment or can easily be treated by physician. The most common telmisartan side effects include-Upper respiratory infection such as the common cold or flu up to 7 percent of people, Back pain up to 3 percent of people, Diarrhea up to 3 percent of people, Inflammation of the sinuses up to 3 percent of people.
Telmisartan has been assigned to pregnancy categories C (use during first trimester) by the FDA. When pregnancy is detected or expected, Telmisartan should be discontinued as soon as possible. The use of drugs that act directly on the RAA system during the second and third trimesters has been associated with fetal and neonatal injury, including hypotension, neonatal skull hypoplasia, anuria, reversible or irreversible renal failure and death. There are no data on the excretion of Telmisartan into human milk, due to the potential for serious adverse effects in the nursing infant, a decision should be made to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug.
Symptoms: Hypotension, bradycardia, tachycardia, dizziness, acute renal failure and elevated serum creatinine. Management: Supportive and symptomatic treatment. Induction of emesis and/or gastric lavage. Activated charcoal may be useful. Salt and volume replacement should be given immediately if hypotension occurs and place patient in supine position.
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Telmisartan may potentially cause extreme low blood pressure or a decrease in kidney function. Hyperkalemia may occur in patients on ARBs, particularly in patients with advanced renal impairment, heart failure, on renal replacement therapy or on potassium supplements, potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium containing salt substitutes or other drugs that increase potassium levels.
Store in a cool and dry place, protected from light. Keep out of children8s reach