NOVARTIS (BANGLADESH) LTD.
Valsartan is indicated: For hypertension To reduce hospitalizations in patients with congestive heart failure To reduce death in patients who developed congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction
Angiotensin-ll receptor blocker
Valganciclovir is an L-valyl ester (prodrug) of ganciclovir, which after oral administration is rapidly converted to ganciclovir by intestinal and hepatic esterases. Ganciclovir is a synthetic analogue of 28-deoxyguanosine, which inhibits replication of herpes viruses in vitro and in vivo. Sensitive human viruses include human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus-1 and -2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), human herpes virus 6, 7 and 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and hepatitis B virus. In CMV-infected cells ganciclovir is initially phosphorylated to ganciclovir mono-phosphate by the viral protein kinase, UL97. Further phosphorylation occurs by cellular kinases to produce ganciclovir triphosphate, which is then slowly metabolized intracellularly. This has been shown to occur in HSV- and HCMV-infected cells with half-lives of 18 and between 6 and 24 hours respectively after removal of extracellular ganciclovir. As phosphorylation is largely dependent on the viral kinase, the phosphorylation of ganciclovir occurs preferentially in virus-infected cells. The virustatic activity of ganciclovir is due to inhibition of viral DNA synthesis by: (a) competitive inhibition of incorporation of deoxyguanosine-triphosphate into DNA by viral DNA polymerase and (b) incorporation of ganciclovir triphosphate into viral DNA causing termination of, or very limited further viral DNA elongation. Typical antiviral IC 50 against CMV in vitro is in the range 0.08 8M (0.02 8g/ml) to 14 8M (3.5 8g/ml). The clinical antiviral effect of Valganciclovir has been demonstrated in the treatment of AIDS patients with newly diagnosed CMV retinitis (clinical trial WV15376). CMV shedding was decreased from 46% (32/69) of patients at study entry to 7% (4/55) of patients following 4 weeks of Valganciclovir treatment.
Hypertension: The usual dose of Valsartan is 80 to 160 mg once daily. The maximum dose is 320 mg daily. Maximum blood pressure reduction occurs within 4 weeks. Heart failure: The usual dose is 40 mg twice daily and may be increased to 80-160 mg twice daily. Post-Myocardial Infarction: The initial dose after myocardial infarction is 20 mg twice daily. The dose should be increased with a target of 160 mg daily if tolerated without side effects . Administration of Valsartan with food decreases the absorption of Valsartan by about 40%, so it should be taken on an empty stomach. No initial dosage adjustment is required for elderly patients with mild to moderate renal and hepatic insufficiency.
No drug interactions of clinical significance have been found. Compounds which have been studied in clinical trials include Cimetidine, Warfarin, Furosemide, Digoxin, Atenolol, Indomethacin, Hydrochlorothiazide, Amlodipine and Glibenclamide As Valsartan is not metabolized to a significant extent, clinically relevant drug-drug interactions in the form of metabolic induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 system are not expected with Valsartan. Although valsartan is highly bound to plasma proteins, in vitrostudies have not shown any interaction at this level with a range of molecules which are also highly protein bound, such as Diclofenac, Furosemide, and Warfarin. Concomitant use of potassium sparing diuretics (e.g., Spironolactone, Triamterene, Amiloride) potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium may lead to increase in serum potassium. If co medication is considered necessary, caution is advisable
Valsartan is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.
Valsartan is generally well tolerated and side effects are rare. The most common side effects include headache, dizziness, fatigue, abdominal pain, cough, diarrhea and nausea. Patient may also experience hyperkalemia, impotency, reduced renal function, allergic reactions, dyspnea, constipation, back pain, muscle cramps, rash, anxiety, insomnia and vertigo. Hypotension may also occur if patient have been taking diuretics along with Valsartan.
Pregnancy: Valsartan should not be used in pregnancy, as in 2nd and 3rd trimester it can cause injury and even death to fetus. When pregnancy is detected, Valsartan should be stopped as soon as possible. Nursing mothers: It is not known whether Valsartan is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Limited data are available related to overdosage in humans. The most likely manifestations of overdosage would be hypotension and tachycardia, bradycardia could occur from parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation. If excessive hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and if necessary, has to be given an intravenous infusion of normal saline.
Impaired Hepatic Function: As the majority of Valsartan is eliminated in the bile, care should be exercised in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment including biliary obstructive disorder. Impaired Renal Function: Dosage reduction or discontinuation may be required with patients having pre-existing renal impairment. Heart Failure and Myocardial Infarction: Caution should be exercised when initiating therapy in patients with heart failure and post-myocardial infarction patients.
Store between 15-308 C. Protect from moisture and heat.